O. Cruz-foundation, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Rua Waldemar Falcão, pp.40295-40296

A. Bharti, J. Nally, J. Ricaldi, M. Matthias, M. Diaz et al., Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.3, issue.12, pp.757-771, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00830-2

P. Levett and . Leptospirosis, Leptospirosis, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.14, issue.2, pp.296-326, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.14.2.296-326.2001

A. Ko, C. Goarant, and M. Picardeau, Leptospira: the dawn of the molecular genetics era for an emerging zoonotic pathogen, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.27, issue.10, pp.736-747, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nrmicro2208

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00450871

H. Louvel and M. Picardeau, Genetic Manipulation of Leptospira biflexa, Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley and Sons, 2007.

P. Bourhy, H. Louvel, S. Girons, I. Picardeau, and M. , Random Insertional Mutagenesis of Leptospira interrogans, the Agent of Leptospirosis, Using a mariner Transposon, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.187, issue.9, pp.3255-3258, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.187.9.3255-3258.2005

J. Croda, C. Figueira, E. Wunder, C. Santos, M. Reis et al., Targeted Mutagenesis in Pathogenic Leptospira Species: Disruption of the LigB Gene Does Not Affect Virulence in Animal Models of Leptospirosis, Infection and Immunity, vol.76, issue.12, pp.5826-5833, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.00989-08

G. Murray, V. Morel, and G. Cerqueira, Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis in Pathogenic Leptospira Species, Infection and Immunity, vol.77, issue.2, pp.810-816, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01293-08

S. Girons, I. Bourhy, P. Ottone, C. Picardeau, M. Yelton et al., The LE1 Bacteriophage Replicates as a Plasmid within Leptospira biflexa: Construction of an L. biflexa-Escherichia coli Shuttle Vector, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.182, issue.20, pp.5700-5705, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.182.20.5700-5705.2000

M. Picardeau, Conjugative Transfer between Escherichia coli and Leptospira spp. as a New Genetic Tool, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.74, issue.1, pp.319-322, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.02172-07

N. Koizumi and H. Watanabe, Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins elicit protective immunity, Vaccine, vol.22, issue.11-12, pp.1545-1552, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.10.007

J. Matsunaga, M. Barocchi, and J. Croda, Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily, Molecular Microbiology, vol.10, issue.3, pp.929-945, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03619.x

R. Palaniappan, Y. Chang, and S. Jusuf, Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Immunogenic LigA Protein of Leptospira interrogans, Infection and Immunity, vol.70, issue.11, pp.5924-5930, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.70.11.5924-5930.2002

H. Choy, M. Kelley, T. Chen, A. Møller, J. Matsunaga et al., Physiological Osmotic Induction of Leptospira interrogans Adhesion: LigA and LigB Bind Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Fibrinogen, Infection and Immunity, vol.75, issue.5, pp.2441-2450, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01635-06

Y. Lin and Y. Chang, A domain of the Leptospira LigB contributes to high affinity binding of fibronectin, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.362, issue.2, pp.443-448, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.07.196

Y. Lin, D. Lee, S. Mcdonough, L. Nicholson, Y. Sharma et al., Repeated Domains of Leptospira Immunoglobulin-like Proteins Interact with Elastin and Tropoelastin, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.284, issue.29, pp.19380-19391, 2009.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M109.004531

Y. Lin and Y. Chang, mediates binding to fibronectin, Journal of Veterinary Science, vol.9, issue.2, pp.133-144, 2008.
DOI : 10.4142/jvs.2008.9.2.133

Y. Lin, A. Greenwood, W. Yan, L. Nicholson, Y. Sharma et al., A novel fibronectin type III module binding motif identified on C-terminus of Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein, LigB, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.389, issue.1, pp.57-62, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.08.089

Y. Lin, R. Raman, Y. Sharma, and Y. Chang, Calcium Binds to Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like Protein, LigB, and Modulates Fibronectin Binding, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.283, issue.37, pp.25140-24149, 2008.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M801350200

URL : http://www.jbc.org/content/283/37/25140.full.pdf

J. Croda, J. Ramos, J. Matsunaga, A. Queiroz, A. Homma et al., Leptospira Immunoglobulin-Like Proteins as a Serodiagnostic Marker for Acute Leptospirosis, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.45, issue.5, pp.1528-1534, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.02344-06

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1865864

P. Srimanote, N. Wongdeethai, P. Jieanampunkul, S. Samonkiert, C. Leepiyasakulchai et al., Recombinant ligA for leptospirosis diagnosis and ligA among the Leptospira spp. clinical isolates, Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol.72, issue.1, pp.73-81, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mimet.2007.10.012

S. Faisal, Y. W. Chen, C. Palaniappan, R. Mcdonough, S. Chang et al., Evaluation of protective immunity of Leptospira immunoglobulin like protein A (LigA) DNA vaccine against challenge in hamsters, Vaccine, vol.26, issue.2, pp.277-287, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.10.029

S. Faisal, Y. W. Mcdonough, S. Chang, and Y. , Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein A variable region (LigAvar) incorporated in liposomes and PLGA microspheres produces a robust immune response correlating to protective immunity, Vaccine, vol.27, issue.3, pp.378-387, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.089

R. Palaniappan, S. Mcdonough, T. Divers, C. Chen, M. Pan et al., Immunoprotection of Recombinant Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-Like Protein A against Leptospira interrogans Serovar Pomona Infection, Infection and Immunity, vol.74, issue.3, pp.1745-1750, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.74.3.1745-1750.2006

E. Silva, M. Medeiros, and A. Mcbride, The terminal portion of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein LigA confers protective immunity against lethal infection in the hamster model of leptospirosis, Vaccine, vol.25, issue.33, pp.6277-6286, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.05.053

W. Yan, S. Faisal, S. Mcdonough, T. Divers, S. Barr et al., Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein B (rLigB) in a hamster challenge model, Microbes and Infection, vol.11, issue.2, pp.230-237, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.micinf.2008.11.008

M. Picardeau, D. Bulach, and C. Bouchier, Genome Sequence of the Saprophyte Leptospira biflexa Provides Insights into the Evolution of Leptospira and the Pathogenesis of Leptospirosis, PLoS ONE, vol.141, issue.2, p.1607, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0001607.s002

P. Bourhy, L. Frangeul, E. Couve, P. Glaser, S. Girons et al., Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the LE1 Prophage from the Spirochete Leptospira biflexa and Characterization of Its Replication and Partition Functions, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.187, issue.12, pp.3931-3940, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.187.12.3931-3940.2005

D. Poggi, P. Oliveira-de-giuseppe, and M. Picardeau, Antibiotic Resistance Markers for Genetic Manipulations of Leptospira spp., Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.76, issue.14, pp.4882-4885, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00775-10

J. Bono, A. Elias, J. Kupko, B. Stevenson, K. Tilly et al., Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis in Borrelia burgdorferi, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.182, issue.9, pp.2445-2452, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.182.9.2445-2452.2000

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC111306/pdf

M. Barocchi, A. Ko, M. Reis, K. Mcdonald, and L. Riley, Rapid Translocation of Polarized MDCK Cell Monolayers by Leptospira interrogans, an Invasive but Nonintracellular Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, vol.70, issue.12, pp.6926-6932, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.70.12.6926-6932.2002

X. Cao, J. Dai, and H. Xu, High-coverage proteome analysis reveals the first insight of protein modification systems in the pathogenic spirochete Leptospira interrogans, Cell Research, vol.5, issue.2, pp.197-210, 2010.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-4-41

D. Haake, M. Mazel, A. Mccoy, F. Milward, G. Chao et al., Leptospiral outer membrane proteins OmpL1 and LipL41 exhibit synergistic immunoprotection, Infect Immun, vol.67, pp.6572-6582, 1999.

J. Setubal, M. Reis, J. Matsunaga, and D. Haake, Lipoprotein computational prediction in spirochaetal genomes, Microbiology, vol.152, issue.1, pp.113-121, 2006.
DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.28317-0

J. Nougayrède, P. Fernandes, and M. Donnenberg, Adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to host cells, Cellular Microbiology, vol.115, issue.6, pp.359-372, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.69.4.2107-2115.2001

J. Pepe and V. Miller, Yersinia enterocolitica invasin: a primary role in the initiation of infection., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.90, issue.14, pp.6473-6477, 1993.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.90.14.6473

H. Choy, M. Kelley, J. Croda, J. Matsunaga, J. Babbitt et al., The Multifunctional LigB Adhesin Binds Homeostatic Proteins with Potential Roles in Cutaneous Infection by Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans, PLoS ONE, vol.25, issue.2, p.16879, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0016879.s002

M. Atzingen, A. Barbosa, D. Brito, T. Vasconcellos, S. De-morais et al., Lsa21, a novel leptospiral protein binding adhesive matrix molecules and present during human infection, BMC Microbiology, vol.8, issue.1, p.70, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2180-8-70

A. Barbosa, P. Abreu, F. Neves, M. Atzingen, M. Watanabe et al., A Newly Identified Leptospiral Adhesin Mediates Attachment to Laminin, Infection and Immunity, vol.74, issue.11, pp.6356-6364, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.00460-06

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1695492

P. Hauk, F. Macedo, E. Romero, S. Vasconcellos, Z. De-morais et al., In LipL32, the Major Leptospiral Lipoprotein, the C Terminus Is the Primary Immunogenic Domain and Mediates Interaction with Collagen IV and Plasma Fibronectin, Infection and Immunity, vol.76, issue.6, pp.2642-2650, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01639-07

M. Longhi, T. Oliveira, E. Romero, A. Gonçales, Z. De-morais et al., A newly identified protein of Leptospira interrogans mediates binding to laminin, Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol.58, issue.10, pp.1275-1282, 2009.
DOI : 10.1099/jmm.0.011916-0

B. Stevenson, H. Choy, and M. Pinne, Leptospira interrogans Endostatin-Like Outer Membrane Proteins Bind Host Fibronectin, Laminin and Regulators of Complement, PLoS ONE, vol.70, issue.11, p.1188, 2007.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0001188.s002

M. Vieira, Z. De-morais, A. Gonçales, E. Romero, S. Vasconcellos et al., Lsa63, a newly identified surface protein of Leptospira interrogans binds laminin and collagen IV, Journal of Infection, vol.60, issue.1, pp.52-64, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jinf.2009.10.047

D. Thomas and L. Higbie, In vitro association of leptospires with host cells, Infect Immun, vol.58, pp.581-585, 1990.

J. Praetorius and K. Spring, Specific Lectins Map the Distribution of Fibronectin and ??1-Integrin on Living MDCK cells, Experimental Cell Research, vol.276, issue.1, pp.52-62, 2002.
DOI : 10.1006/excr.2002.5516

C. Schoenenberger, A. Zuk, G. Zinkl, D. Kendall, and K. Matlin, Integrin expression and localization in normal MDCK cells and transformed MDCK cells lacking apical polarity, J Cell Sci, vol.107, pp.527-541, 1994.

H. Ellinghausen and W. Mccullough, Nutrition of Leptospira pomona and growth of 13 other serotypes: fractionation of oleic albumin complex and a medium of bovine albumin and polysorbate 80, Am J Vet Res, vol.26, pp.45-51, 1965.

R. Johnson and V. Harris, Differentiation of pathogenic and saprophytic leptospires, J Bacteriol, vol.94, pp.27-31, 1967.

H. Bauby, S. Girons, I. Picardeau, and M. , Construction and complementation of the first auxotrophic mutant in the spirochaete Leptospira meyeri, Microbiology, vol.149, issue.3, pp.689-693, 2003.
DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.26065-0

P. Cullen, X. Xu, J. Matsunaga, Y. Sanchez, A. Ko et al., Surfaceome of Leptospira spp., Infection and Immunity, vol.73, issue.8, pp.4853-4863, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.73.8.4853-4863.2005

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1201201

J. Antoine, C. Jouanne, T. Lang, E. Prina, C. De-chastellier et al., Localization of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules in phagolysosomes of murine macrophages infected with Leishmania amazonensis, Infect Immun, vol.9, pp.764-775, 1991.

J. Matsunaga, M. Lo, D. Bulach, R. Zuerner, B. Adler et al., Response of Leptospira interrogans to Physiologic Osmolarity: Relevance in Signaling the Environment-to-Host Transition, Infection and Immunity, vol.75, issue.6, pp.2864-2874, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01619-06