E. Vidor, C. Meschievitz, and S. Plotkin, Fifteen years of experience with Vero-produced enhanced potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol.16, issue.3, pp.312-322, 1997.
DOI : 10.1097/00006454-199703000-00011

T. Swartz, R. Handsher, Y. Manor, P. Stoeckel, and A. Barkay, Immune response to an intercalated enhanced inactivated polio vaccine/oral polio vaccine programme in Israel: impact on the control of poliomyelitis, Vaccine, vol.16, issue.20, pp.2090-2095, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(98)00071-1

L. Shulman, R. Handsher, C. Yang, S. Yang, and J. Manor, Resolution of the pathways of poliovirus type 1 transmission during an outbreak, J Clin Microbiol, vol.38, pp.945-952, 2000.

Y. Manor, R. Handsher, T. Halmut, M. Neuman, and A. Bobrov, Detection of poliovirus circulation by environmental surveillance in the absence of clinical cases in Israel and the Palestinian authority, J Clin Microbiol, vol.37, pp.1670-1675, 1999.

E. Domingo, E. Martinez-salas, F. Sobrino, J. De-la-torre, and A. Portela, The quasispecies (extremely heterogeneous) nature of viral RNA genome populations: biological relevance ??? a review, Gene, vol.40, issue.1, pp.1-8, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(85)90017-4

L. Kinnunen, A. Huovilainen, T. Poyry, and T. Hovi, Rapid molecular evolution of wild type 3 poliovirus during infection in individual hosts, Journal of General Virology, vol.71, issue.2, pp.317-324, 1990.
DOI : 10.1099/0022-1317-71-2-317

O. Kew, M. Mulders, G. Lipskaya, E. De-silva, and M. Pallansch, Molecular epidemiology of polioviruses, Seminars in Virology, vol.6, issue.6, pp.401-405, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/S1044-5773(05)80017-4

L. Shulman, Y. Manor, R. Handsher, F. Delpeyroux, and M. Mcdonough, Molecular and antigenic characterization of a highly evolved derivative of the type 2 oral poliovaccine strain isolated from sewage in Israel, J Clin Microbiol, vol.38, pp.3729-3734, 2000.

A. Mcgoldrick, A. Macadam, G. Dunn, A. Rowe, and J. Burlison, Role of mutations G-480 and C-6203 in the attenuation phenotype of Sabin type 1 poliovirus, J Virol, vol.69, pp.7601-7605, 1995.

M. Georgescu, F. Delpeyroux, M. Tardy-panit, J. Balanant, and M. Combiescu, High diversity of poliovirus strains isolated from the central nervous system from patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, J Virol, vol.68, pp.8089-8101, 1994.

L. Shulman, Y. Manor, J. Alfandari, D. Kilpatrick, and T. Halmut, Rapid evolution by recombination of OPV strains in immunized children in an urban Bedouin community. Program and Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of The Israeli Society of Microbiology, pp.9-10, 2004.

E. Wimmer, C. Hellen, and X. Cao, Genetics of Poliovirus, Annual Review of Genetics, vol.27, issue.1, pp.353-436, 1993.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ge.27.120193.002033

V. Agol, Recombination and Other Genomic Rearrangements in Picornaviruses, Seminars in Virology, vol.8, issue.2, pp.77-78, 1997.
DOI : 10.1006/smvy.1997.0112

S. Guillot, V. Caro, N. Cuervo, E. Korotkova, and M. Combiescu, Natural Genetic Exchanges between Vaccine and Wild Poliovirus Strains in Humans, Journal of Virology, vol.74, issue.18, pp.8434-8443, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.74.18.8434-8443.2000

N. Cuervo, S. Guillot, N. Romanenkova, M. Combiescu, and A. Aubert-combiescu, Genomic Features of Intertypic Recombinant Sabin Poliovirus Strains Excreted by Primary Vaccinees, Journal of Virology, vol.75, issue.13, pp.5740-5751, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.75.13.5740-5751.2001

O. Kew, R. Sutter, E. De-gourville, W. Dowdle, and M. Pallansch, VACCINE-DERIVED POLIOVIRUSES AND THE ENDGAME STRATEGY FOR GLOBAL POLIO ERADICATION, Annual Review of Microbiology, vol.59, issue.1, pp.587-635, 2005.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603.123625

O. Kew, P. Wright, V. Agol, F. Delpeyroux, and H. Shimizu, Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge, Bull World Health Organ, vol.82, pp.16-23, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00319492

E. Cherkasova, M. Laassri, V. Chizhikov, E. Korotkova, and E. Dragunsky, Microarray analysis of evolution of RNA viruses: Evidence of circulation of virulent highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.100, issue.16, pp.9398-9403, 2003.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1633511100

E. Korotkova, R. Park, E. Cherkasova, G. Lipskaya, and K. Chumakov, Retrospective Analysis of a Local Cessation of Vaccination against Poliomyelitis: a Possible Scenario for the Future, Journal of Virology, vol.77, issue.23, pp.12460-12465, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.77.23.12460-12465.2003

P. Fine, Herd Immunity: History, Theory, Practice, Epidemiologic Reviews, vol.15, issue.2, pp.265-302, 1993.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a036121

L. Shulman, Y. Manor, R. Handsher, A. Vonsover, and O. Kew, Molecular analysis of wild type 1 poliovirus isolated from patients and sewage samples collected in Israel, Gaza, and the West Bank reveals at least three independent introductions of the virus into this region. Abs, pp.54-60, 1996.

J. Ranta, T. Hovi, and E. Arjas, Poliovirus Surveillance by Examining Sewage Water Specimens: Studies on Detection Probability Using Simulation Models, Risk Analysis, vol.21, issue.6, pp.1087-1096, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/0272-4332.t01-1-216174

L. De, B. Nottay, C. Yang, B. Holloway, and M. Pallansch, Identification of vaccine-related polioviruses by hybridization with specific RNA probes, J Clin Microbiol, vol.33, pp.562-571, 1995.

E. Mendelson, L. Shulman, Y. Manor, R. Handsher, and T. Halmut, Highly evolved, Sabin 2 derived poliovirus strains isolated from sewage in Israel: antigenic and molecular characterization, J of Clinical Virology, vol.282, 2002.

H. Toyoda, M. Kohara, Y. Kataoka, T. Suganuma, and T. Omata, Complete nucleotide sequences of all three poliovirus serotype genomes, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.174, issue.4, pp.561-585, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2836(84)90084-6

C. Yang, H. Chen, J. Jorba, H. Sun, and S. Yang, Intratypic Recombination among Lineages of Type 1 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emerging during Chronic Infection of an Immunodeficient Patient, Journal of Virology, vol.79, issue.20, pp.12623-12634, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.79.20.12623-12634.2005

G. Buttinelli, V. Donati, S. Fiore, J. Marturano, and A. Plebani, Nucleotide variation in Sabin type 2 poliovirus from an immunodeficient patient with poliomyelitis, Journal of General Virology, vol.84, issue.5, pp.1215-1221, 2003.
DOI : 10.1099/vir.0.18974-0

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00319503

I. Grotto, R. Handsher, M. Gdalevich, D. Mimouni, and M. Huerta, Decline in immunity to polio among young adults, Vaccine, vol.19, issue.30, pp.4162-4166, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00165-7

H. Yoshida, H. Horie, K. Matsuura, and T. Miyamura, Characterisation of vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated from sewage and river water in Japan, The Lancet, vol.356, issue.9240, pp.1461-1463, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02868-3

L. Shulman, Y. Manor, D. Sofer, T. Swartz, and E. Mendelson, OPV -Will it help eradicate polio or cause the next epidemic, IMAJ The Israel Medical Association Journal, vol.8, pp.312-215, 2006.

R. Calderon-margalit, D. Sofer, D. Gefen, M. Lewis, and L. Shulman, Immune status to poliovirus among immigrant workers in Israel, Preventive Medicine, vol.40, issue.6, pp.685-689, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.008

D. Pavlov, V. Zyl, W. Van-heerden, J. Grabow, W. Ehlers et al., Prevalence of vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage and river water in South Africa, Water Research, vol.39, issue.14, pp.3309-3319, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.watres.2005.05.027

S. Blomqvist, C. Savolainen, P. Laine, P. Hirttio, and E. Lamminsalo, Characterization of a Highly Evolved Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Type 3 Isolated from Sewage in Estonia, Journal of Virology, vol.78, issue.9, pp.4876-4883, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.78.9.4876-4883.2004

J. Pertinacova, E. Bohmova, and Z. Sobotova, Isolation of highly divergent vaccine strains of polioviruses in Slovakia], Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol, vol.53, pp.22-24, 2004.

M. Yakovenko, E. Cherkasova, G. Rezapkin, O. Ivanova, and A. Ivanov, Antigenic Evolution of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses: Changes in Individual Epitopes and Relative Stability of the Overall Immunological Properties, Journal of Virology, vol.80, issue.6, pp.2641-2653, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.80.6.2641-2653.2006

P. Slater, W. Orenstein, A. Morag, A. Avni, and R. Handsher, Poliomyelitis outbreak in Israel in 1988: a report with two commentaries, The Lancet, vol.335, issue.8699, pp.1192-1195, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0140-6736(90)92705-M

N. Halsey, J. Pinto, F. Espinosa-rosales, M. Faure-fontenla, and E. Da-silva, Search for poliovirus carriers among people with primary immune deficiency diseases in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom, Bull World Health Organ, vol.82, pp.3-8, 2004.

C. Maclennan, G. Dunn, A. Huissoon, D. Kumararatne, and J. Martin, Failure to clear persistent vaccine-derived neurovirulent poliovirus infection in an immunodeficient man, The Lancet, vol.363, issue.9420, pp.1509-1513, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16150-3

J. Thompson, T. Gibson, F. Plewniak, F. Jeanmougin, and D. Higgins, The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.25, issue.24, pp.4876-4882, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/25.24.4876

K. Lole, R. Bollinger, R. Paranjape, D. Gadkari, and S. Kulkarni, Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from subtype Cinfected seroconverters in India, with evidence of intersubtype recombination, J Virol, vol.73, pp.152-160, 1999.