A. M. Sheehy, N. C. Gaddis, J. D. Choi, and M. H. Malim, Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein, Nature, vol.71, issue.6898, pp.418-646, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/emboj/16.15.4531

D. Lecossier, F. Bouchonnet, F. Clavel, and A. J. Hance, Hypermutation of HIV-1 DNA in the Absence of the Vif Protein, Science, vol.300, issue.5622, p.1112, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1083338

H. Zhang, B. Yang, R. J. Pomerantz, C. Zhang, S. C. Arunachalam et al., The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA, Nature, vol.424, issue.6944, pp.424-94, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nature01707

B. Mangeat, P. Turelli, G. Caron, M. Friedli, L. Perrin et al., Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts, Nature, vol.424, issue.6944, pp.424-99, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nature01709

R. S. Harris, K. N. Bishop, A. M. Sheehy, H. M. Craig, S. K. Petersen-mahrt et al., DNA Deamination Mediates Innate Immunity to Retroviral Infection, Cell, vol.113, issue.6, pp.803-809, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00423-9

R. Mariani, D. Chen, B. Schrofelbauer, F. Navarro, R. Konig et al., Species-Specific Exclusion of APOBEC3G from HIV-1 Virions by Vif, Cell, vol.114, issue.1, pp.21-31, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00515-4

R. C. Desrosiers, J. D. Lifson, J. S. Gibbs, S. C. Czajak, A. Y. Howe et al., Identi®cation of highly attenuated mutants of simian immunode®ciency virus, J. Virol, vol.72, pp.1431-1437, 1998.

A. Jarmuz, A. Chester, J. Bayliss, J. Gisbourne, I. Dunham et al., An anthropoid-speci®c locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22, Genomics, pp.79-285, 2002.

B. Teng, C. F. Burant, and N. O. Davidson, Molecular cloning of an apolipoprotein B messenger RNA editing protein, Science, vol.260, issue.5115, pp.1816-1819, 1993.
DOI : 10.1126/science.8511591

M. Muramatsu, K. Kinoshita, S. Fagarasan, S. Yamada, Y. Shinkai et al., Class Switch Recombination and Hypermutation Require Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), a Potential RNA Editing Enzyme, Cell, vol.102, issue.5, pp.553-563, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00078-7

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)00078-7

S. K. Petersen-mahrt, R. S. Harris, and M. S. Neuberger, AID mutates E.coli suggesting a DNA deamination mechanism for antibody diversi®cation, Nature, pp.418-99, 2002.

R. S. Harris, S. K. Petersen-mahrt, and M. S. Neuberger, RNA Editing Enzyme APOBEC1 and Some of Its Homologs Can Act as DNA Mutators, Molecular Cell, vol.10, issue.5, pp.1247-1253, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1097-2765(02)00742-6

R. Bransteitter, P. Pham, M. D. Scharff, and M. F. Goodman, Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates deoxycytidine on single-stranded DNA but requires the action of RNase, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, pp.4102-4107, 2003.
DOI : 10.1101/sqb.1999.64.227

P. Pham, R. Bransteitter, J. Petruska, and M. F. Goodman, Processive AID-catalysed cytosine deamination on single-stranded DNA simulates somatic hypermutation, Nature, vol.424, issue.6944, pp.424-103, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nature01760

A. R. Ramiro, P. Stavropoulos, M. Jankovic, and M. C. Nussenzweig, Transcription enhances AID-mediated cytidine deamination by exposing single-stranded DNA on the nontemplate strand, Nature Immunology, vol.4, issue.5, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/ni920

J. Chaudhuri, M. Tian, C. Khuong, K. Chua, E. Pinaud et al., Transcription-targeted DNA deamination by the AID antibody diversi®cation enzyme, Nature, pp.422-726, 2003.

M. Janini, M. Rogers, D. R. Birx, and F. E. Mccutchan, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 DNA Sequences Genetically Damaged by Hypermutation Are Often Abundant in Patient Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and May Be Generated during Near-Simultaneous Infection and Activation of CD4+ T Cells, Journal of Virology, vol.75, issue.17, pp.7973-7986, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.75.17.7973-7986.2001

S. T. Perry, M. T. Flaherty, M. J. Kelley, D. L. Clabough, S. R. Tronick et al., The surface envelope protein gene region of equine infectious anemia virus is not an important determinant of tropism in vitro, J. Virol, vol.66, pp.4085-4097, 1992.

S. Gunther, G. Sommer, U. Plikat, A. Iwanska, S. Wain-hobson et al., Naturally Occurring Hepatitis B Virus Genomes Bearing the Hallmarks of Retroviral G ??? A Hypermutation, Virology, vol.235, issue.1, pp.104-108, 1997.
DOI : 10.1006/viro.1997.8676

J. E. Fitzgibbon, S. Mazar, and D. T. Dubin, A New Type of G???A Hypermutation Affecting Human Immunodeficiency Virus, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol.9, issue.9, pp.833-838, 1993.
DOI : 10.1089/aid.1993.9.833

F. Gao, L. Yue, A. T. White, P. G. Pappas, J. Barchue et al., Human infection by genetically diverse SIVSM-related HIV-2 in West Africa, Nature, vol.358, issue.6386, pp.495-499, 1992.
DOI : 10.1038/358495a0

S. Wain-hobson, P. Sonigo, M. Guyader, A. Gazit, and M. Henry, Erratic G ??? A Hypermutation within a Complete Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) Provirus, Virology, vol.209, issue.2, pp.297-303, 1995.
DOI : 10.1006/viro.1995.1261

J. P. Vartanian, A. Meyerhans, M. Sala, and S. Wain-hobson, G ® A hypermutation of the human immunode®ciency virus type 1 genome: evidence for dCTP pool imbalance during reverse transcription, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 91, pp.3092-3096, 1994.

V. Hirsch, N. Riedel, and J. I. Mullins, The genome organization of STLV-3 is similar to that of the AIDS virus except for a truncated transmembrane protein, Cell, vol.49, issue.3, pp.49-307, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(87)90283-2

V. K. Pathak and H. M. Temin, Broad spectrum of in vivo forward mutations, hypermutations, and mutational hotspots in a retroviral shuttle vector after a single replication cycle: substitutions, frameshifts, and hypermutations., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, pp.6019-6023, 1990.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.87.16.6019

J. P. Vartanian, A. Meyerhans, B. Asjo, and S. Wain-hobson, Selection, recombination and G ® A hypermutation of human immunode®ciency virus type 1 genomes, J. Virol, vol.65, pp.1779-1788, 1991.

J. P. Vartanian, M. Henry, and S. Wain-hobson, Sustained G???A hypermutation during reverse transcription of an entire human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain Vau group O genome, Journal of General Virology, vol.83, issue.4, pp.801-805, 2002.
DOI : 10.1099/0022-1317-83-4-801

A. M. Sheehy, N. C. Gaddis, and M. H. Malim, The antiretroviral enzyme APOBEC3G is degraded by the proteasome in response to HIV-1 Vif, Nature Medicine, vol.9, issue.11, pp.1404-1407, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nm945

X. Yu, Y. Yu, B. Liu, K. Luo, W. Kong et al., Induction of APOBEC3G ubiquitination and degradation by an HIV-1, 2003.

M. Marin, K. M. Rose, S. L. Kozak, and D. Kabat, HIV-1 Vif protein binds the editing enzyme APOBEC3G and induces its degradation, Nature Medicine, vol.9, issue.11, pp.1398-1403, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nm946

K. Stopak, C. De-noronha, W. Yonemoto, and W. C. Greene, HIV-1 Vif Blocks the Antiviral Activity of APOBEC3G by Impairing Both Its Translation and Intracellular Stability, Molecular Cell, vol.12, issue.3, pp.591-601, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00353-8

S. G. Conticello, R. S. Harris, and M. S. Neuberger, The Vif Protein of HIV Triggers Degradation of the Human Antiretroviral DNA Deaminase APOBEC3G, Current Biology, vol.13, issue.22, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2003.10.034

Y. Gu and W. I. Sundquist, Good to CU, Nature, vol.424, issue.6944, pp.424-445, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/424021a

V. N. Kewalramani and J. M. Cof®n, VIROLOGY: Weapons of Mutational Destruction, Science, vol.301, issue.5635, pp.923-925, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1088965

S. P. Goff, Death by Deamination, Cell, vol.114, issue.3, pp.281-283, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00602-0

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00602-0

R. S. Harris, A. M. Sheehy, H. M. Craig, M. H. Malim, and M. S. Neuberger, DNA deamination: not just a trigger for antibody diversification but also a mechanism for defense against retroviruses, Nature Immunology, vol.4, issue.7, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/ni0703-641

B. R. Cullen, HIV-1 Vif: Counteracting Innate Antiretroviral Defenses, Molecular Therapy, vol.8, issue.4, pp.525-527, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ymthe.2003.08.010

URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2003.08.010

M. S. Neuberger, R. S. Harris, J. Di-noia, and S. K. Petersen-mahrt, Immunity through DNA deamination, Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol.28, issue.6, pp.305-312, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0968-0004(03)00111-7

J. P. Vartanian, P. Sommer, and S. Wain-hobson, Death and the retrovirus, Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol.9, issue.10, pp.409-413, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molmed.2003.08.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00850260

T. Eto, K. Kinoshita, K. Yoshikawa, M. Muramatsu, and T. Honjo, RNA-editing cytidine deaminase Apobec-1 is unable to induce somatic hypermutation in mammalian cells, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, pp.12895-12898, 2003.
DOI : 10.1006/geno.2002.6718

R. C. Beale, S. K. Petersen-mahrt, I. N. Watt, R. S. Harris, C. Rada et al., Comparison of the Differential Context-dependence of DNA Deamination by APOBEC Enzymes: Correlation with Mutation Spectra in Vivo, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.337, issue.3, pp.585-596, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2004.01.046

S. Anant, J. O. Henderson, D. Mukhopadhyay, N. Navaratnam, S. Kennedy et al., Novel Role for RNA-binding Protein CUGBP2 in Mammalian RNA Editing: CUGBP2 MODULATES C TO U EDITING OF APOLIPOPROTEIN B mRNA BY INTERACTING WITH APOBEC-1 AND ACF, THE APOBEC-1 COMPLEMENTATION FACTOR, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.276, issue.50, pp.47338-47351, 2001.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M104911200

M. A. Martinez, J. P. Vartanian, and S. Wain-hobson, Hypermutagenesis of RNA using human immunode®ciency virus type 1, 1994.

M. Sala, S. Wain-hobson, and F. Schaeffer, Human immunode®ciency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase tG:T mispair formation on RNA and DNA templates with mismatched primers: a kinetic and thermodynamic study, EMBO J, vol.14, pp.4622-4627, 1995.

M. A. Greagg, M. J. Fogg, G. Panayotou, S. J. Evans, B. A. Connolly et al., A read-ahead function in archaeal DNA polymerases detects promutagenic template-strand uracil, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 96, pp.9045-9050, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80237-1

J. Pang, J. Modlin, and R. Yolken, Use of modified nucleotides and uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) for the control of contamination in the PCR-based amplification of RNA, Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol.6, issue.3, pp.251-256, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0890-8508(92)90024-R

W. P. Stemmer, Rapid evolution of a protein in vitro by DNA shuffling, Nature, vol.370, issue.6488, pp.389-391, 1994.
DOI : 10.1038/370389a0

N. C. Gaddis, E. Chertova, A. M. Sheehy, L. E. Henderson, and M. H. Malim, Comprehensive Investigation of the Molecular Defect in vif-Deficient Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Virions, Journal of Virology, vol.77, issue.10, pp.5810-5820, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.77.10.5810-5820.2003

M. Eigen and C. K. Biebricher, Sequence space and quasispecies distribution Variability of RNA Genomes, RNA Genetics, vol.3, pp.211-245, 1988.

S. Crotty, D. Maag, J. J. Arnold, W. Zhong, J. Y. Lau et al., The broad-spectrum antiviral ribonucleoside ribavirin is an RNA virus mutagen, Nat. Med, vol.6, pp.1375-1379, 2000.

L. A. Loeb, J. M. Essigmann, F. Kazazi, J. Zhang, K. D. Rose et al., Lethal mutagenesis of HIV with mutagenic nucleoside analogs, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 96, pp.1492-1497, 1999.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.91.25.11787

R. Cattaneo, A. Schmid, D. Eschle, K. Baczko, V. Ter-meulen et al., Biased hypermutation and other genetic changes in defective measles virus in human brain infections, Cell, pp.55-255, 1988.

A. M. Borman, C. Quillent, P. Charneau, C. M. Kean, and F. Clavel, A Highly Defective HIV-1 Group O Provirus: Evidence for the Role of Local Sequence Determinants in G ??? A Hypermutation during Negative-Strand Viral DNA Synthesis, Virology, vol.208, issue.2, pp.601-609, 1995.
DOI : 10.1006/viro.1995.1191

J. P. Vartanian, U. Plikat, M. Henry, R. Mahieux, L. Guillemot et al., HIV genetic variation is directed and restricted by DNA precursor availability, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.270, issue.2, pp.139-151, 1997.
DOI : 10.1006/jmbi.1997.1104

L. M. Mansky, In Vivo Analysis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcription Accuracy, Journal of Virology, vol.74, issue.20, pp.9525-9531, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.74.20.9525-9531.2000

L. M. Mansky, The mutation rate of human immunode®ciency virus type 1 is in¯uenced by the vpr gene, Virology, pp.222-391, 1996.

L. M. Mansky and H. M. Temin, Lower in vivo mutation rate of human immunode®ciency virus type 1 than that predicted from the ®delity of puri®ed reverse transcriptase, J. Virol, vol.69, pp.5087-5094, 1995.

M. A. Martinez, V. Pezo, P. Marliere, and S. Wain-hobson, Exploring the functional robustness of an enzyme by in vitro evolution, EMBO J, vol.15, 1996.