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Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Senescence in Atherosclerosis: Thioredoxine-1 as an Emerging Therapeutic Target

Abstract : Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide and intimately linked to aging. This pathology is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, gradual accumulation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) particles and fibrous elements in focal areas of large and medium arteries. These fibrofatty lesions in the artery wall become progressively unstable and thrombogenic leading to heart attack, stroke or other severe heart ischemic syndromes. Elevated blood levels of LDL are major triggering events for atherosclerosis. A cascade of molecular and cellular events results in the atherosclerotic plaque formation, evolution, and rupture. Moreover, the senescence of multiple cell types present in the vasculature were reported to contribute to atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization. Classical therapeutic interventions consist of lipid-lowering drugs, anti-inflammatory and life style dispositions. Moreover, targeting oxidative stress by developing innovative antioxidant agents or boosting antioxidant systems is also a well-established strategy. Accumulation of senescent cells (SC) is also another important feature of atherosclerosis and was detected in various models. Hence, targeting SCs appears as an emerging therapeutic option, since senolytic agents favorably disturb atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we propose a survey of the impact of inflammation, oxidative stress, and senescence in atherosclerosis; and the emerging therapeutic options, including thioredoxin-based approaches such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic strategy with promising potential of senomodulation.
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Submitted on : Friday, January 14, 2022 - 12:08:37 PM
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Khadija El Hadri, Rémy Smith, Eric Duplus, Chahrazade El Amri. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Senescence in Atherosclerosis: Thioredoxine-1 as an Emerging Therapeutic Target. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 2022, 23 (1), pp.77. ⟨10.3390/ijms23010077⟩. ⟨hal-03526168⟩

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